Four Imams The: Information Sheet Taken From  Www.ask-imam.com

IMAM ABU HANIFA (ra)

  1. Nu'man bin Thabit ibn Zauti, - well known in Islamic History as 'Imam Abu Hanifa' and 'Imam Azam' - was the son of a Persian merchant.

    He was born in Kufa, Iraq - in the Year 80 AH

  2. His father - Thabit - was privileged to meet Hazrat Ali (ra) who had at the time, made Kufa his capital.

  3. Kufa was founded in 17 AH by Hazrat Umar ibn Khattab (ra) the 2nd Khalif.

    Kufa had become the 3rd most important centre of learning during Hazrat Umar's (ra) Khilafat.

    A large number of Sahaba (ra) were sent to this new city to settle here by Umar (ra). These included Hazrat Abdulla ibn Ma'sood, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Ammar, Huzaifa & Abu Moosa etc. (ra).

    Records indicate the presence of 1050 Sahaba in Kufa of whom 24 were the participants of Badr.

  4. At the age of 20, Imam Abu Hanifa turned his attention towards the pursuit of advancing his Islamic knowledge.

  5. Among his 1st and the most important tutors was Imam Hammad (Died 120 AH) whose educational lineage is linked with Hazrat Abdulla Ibn Mas'ood (ra).

  6. Imam Abu Hanifa is also a Tabi'ee = One who saw and benefited from at least one Sahabi.

  7. Imam Abu Hanifa benefited from nearly 4,000 Shaikhs.

    In those days, the Hajj season was the best means of spreading and deriving Islamic knowledge as Muslims from every corner of the Islamic world assembled in Makka.

    In his lifetime Imam Abu Hanifa is reputed to have performed fifty Hajj.

  8. Imam Abu Hanifa (ra) had joined his father's business wherein he showed scrupulous honesty and fairness.

    Once his agent had sold a consignment of silk cloth on his behalf but forgot to mention a slight defect to the customers. When Abu Hanifa learnt of this, he was greatly distressed because he had no means of the refunding the customers; so he immediately ordered the entire proceeds of the sale (30,000 Dirhams) to be given in charity.

  9. The Imam was also keenly interested in education.

    He established a school at Kufa, which later became a famous College of Theology. Here he delivered lectures on Islamic Law and related subjects.

  10. Fiqah or Islamic Law was systematically studied by his students under his expert guidance.

    A large number of his devoted and highly intelligent students worked under him for 30 years, and it is the labour of these students that gave us the Hanafi School of thought.

  11. Imam Abu Hanifa (ra) was the 1st of the Imams to advocate the use of "reason" in the consideration of religious questions based on the Qur'an and Sunnah.

  12. He was also the 1st Imam to arrange all the subjects of Islamic Law systematically.

  13. His most important work is the Kitab-ul-Aasaar which was compiled by his students - Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad.

  14. In {164 AH} 763 AC Al-Mansoor - the Banu Abbas Khalifa of the Muslim Empire at Baghdad whose capital was Baghdad - offered Imam Sahib the post of Chief Qazi of the state, but the Imam declined to accept the post and chose to remain independent. In his reply to Al-Mansoor, the Imam excused himself by saying that he did not regard himself fit for the post offered. Al-Mansoor, who had his own ideas and reasons for offering the post, lost his temper and accused the Imam of lying.

    "If I am lying," the Imam said, "then my statement is doubly correct.

    "How can you appoint a liar to the exalted post of a Chief Qazi?"

    Incensed by this reply, Al-Mansoor charged the Imam with contempt, had him arrested and locked in prison.

  15. Even in prison, the Imam continued to teach those who were permitted to come to him.

  16. It was here in prison that the Imam was administered a dose of poison in 150 AH

    Realizing that the end was near, the Imam prostrated in prayer and passed away in this condition in the month of Rajab, 150 AH

    The news of his death soon spread throughout Baghdad

  17. 17. The whole town came out to pay their last homage to the greatest Imam of Islamic Law.

    More than 50,000 people participated in the first Janaza Salaat.

    People continued to flock and before the Janaza could be finally taken for burial, the Salaatul Janaza was offered 6 times in all.

    For days, people came in large numbers to pay their respects at the grave side.

  18. Among the four Imams, Abu Hanifa has the largest number of followers even today in all parts of the world {MARK}.

IMAM MAALIK IBN ANAS (ra)

  1. Abu Abdullah Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Abi Aamir (ra) was born in Madina in the year 93 AH (714 AC)

    He came from a respectable family.

  2. His ancestral home was in Yemen, but his great grandfather - Aamir - settled in Madina after embracing Islam.

  3. His grandfather - Maalik - was an important Taabi-ee and a famous reporter of Ahadith.

  4. He was greatly attracted to the study of Islamic Law and devoted his entire interest to the subject after completing his primary education.

  5. Madina was the most important seat of Islamic learning as the immediate descendants of the Sahaba-e-Kiraam were inhabitants of the City.

  6. For the purpose of his study, he sought out over 300 "Tabi'een" = those who saw the Sahaba / Companions of the Holy Prophet (saw), and acquired from them the knowledge of the Holy Prophet's (saw) Ahadith and Sunnah.

  7. He spent his entire life in Madina where he studied Fiqah from 95 Shaikhs. It is these Shaikhs from whom he recorded the Ahadith in his Kitab-ul-Muatta.

    This Kitab contains 1725 Ahadith of Rasulullah (saw).

  8. He studied Qira'at & Hadith for nearly ten years under Hazrat Naafe 'the slave of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Umar (ra). Hazrat Naafe 'had served his master for nearly 30 years.

    Naafe 'was once sent by Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (ra) to impart knowledge in Egypt.

  9. Although he is the author of numerous books, his most important work is the Kitab-ul-Muatta, which deals with the subject of Islamic Law based on Ahadith and Sunnah. The Kitab-ul-Muatta is the earliest surviving book of its kind - written around 150 AH - and it is used in all Islamic institutions as one of the text books in the final year studies by graduating Ulama.

  10. Imam Malik had the highest regard for the Holy Prophet (saw) as well as for his Ahadith. He never tolerated indiscipline whilst Hadith-e-Rasul was under discussion.

    He even rebuked Al-Mansoor for talking loudly when some Ahadith were being discussed.

  11. The Imam always made Wudu or Ghusal, wore fresh clean attire and applied perfume before conducting lessons on Ahadith.

  12. He delivered lectures on Islamic Law, and issued fatwas (Islamic Rulings) for nearly 62 years. Approx. 1,300 people have reported Ahadith from him.

  13. He had the honour of occupying the home of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (ra) and conducting lessons from the same spot where Rasulullah (saw) spent his time for I'tikaaf, in the Masjid-un-Nabi.

  14. Imam Malik was famous for his piety and integrity, and courageously stood up prepared to suffer for his conviction.

    For example, in 135 AH, When the governor of Madina demanded and forced people to take the oath of allegiance in favour of Khalifa Al-Mansoor, the Imam issued a Fatwa that such an oath was not binding because it was given under duress.

  15. Since this fatwa was not in the interest of the ruler, the governor arrested the Imam and had him publicly flogged for the "crime".

    Al-Mansoor, learning of this outrage, apologized to the Imam and dismissed the errant governor.

  16. Imam Malik (ra), was offered 3,000 gold coins (dinars) by Mansoor, as travelling expenses to Baghdad and subsequent residence in the Capital, but the Imam politely refused the offer saying that he prefered to live in Madina near Rasulullah (saw).

  17. Imam Malik never intended the formation of a school of thought bearing his name. It was his disciples & followers who later developed a Fiqah School based on Imam Malik's rulings.

  18. Malikis are found mostly in North & West Africa - Tunis, Algeria, Morrocco and Egypt.

  19. This Great Leader of Islamic Law died in Madina on the 11th Rabi-ul-Akhir 179 AH at the age 86 years. He lies buried in the Jannatul Baqi in Madina. (MARK)

IMAM MALIK IBN ANAS (ra) - ADDITIONAL FACTS

  1. Madina was the most important centre of knowledge as scholars flocked to the City to pay their respects to Rasulullah (saw).

  2. The home of Imam Malik too was a centre of Ilm-e-Nabawi.

  3. Among his first tutors was Imam-ush-Shua'raa Hazrat Naafe 'bin Abdur Rahman (died - 169 AH) from whom he mastered the Qur'an.

  4. Later, whilst still a youngster he joined the Hadith classes of Naafe '.

  5. Physical description: Tall, heavily built, fair but reddish, wide eyes, beautiful nose, very little hair on the forehead, heavy long beard which reached his chest. trimmed moustache above / edge of the lip.

    He considered the shaver of moustache as Makrooh and a Mussla (disfigurer).

  6. He wore expensive clothing and used much Ittar.

  7. He wore a silver ring with a stone and engraved was 'Hasbun'Allahu wa Ne'mal Wakeel'.

  8. On his door was written 'Maa Sha Allah'. This house originally belonged to Abdulla ibn Mas'ood (ra).

  9. He started teaching at the age of 17.

  10. It was only after seventy Ulama certified him as an authority, did he commence issuing Fatwa.

  11. His seat in the Masjid-e-Nabawi was the same seat that was occupied by Hazrat Umar (ra).

  12. He never answered the call of nature within the perimeter of the Haram, except during illness or some Uzar.

  13. He never rode during his entire life on an animal in Madina.

    He used to say, "How can I ride an animal whose feet tramples the ground in which lies resting of the Master (saw).

  14. During his advancing years, he never went out of Madina - hoping to be buried therein.

  15. During Hadith lessons if anyone raised his voice, he would reprimand him and quote the Qura'nic verse ... adding that the command was applicable even now.

IMAM MAALIK IBN ANAS (ra) - POLITICAL ERA

  1. During the Khilafat of Mansoor Abbasi, oppression was on the increase.

    Muhammad Zun-Nafs az-Zakiyah in Madina and his brother Ibrahim in Basra were compelled to raise the flag of rebellion against the the injustice directed mostly towards the Sayeds.

    Imam Malik issued a fatwa in favour of these two and against the government.

  2. 2. This led to his arrest by the governor of Madina and subsequent flogging - seventy lashes.

    Later when Mansoor learnt of this, he expressed regret and sent an apology to the Imam and requested the Imam to come to Baghdad, but the Imam refused.

    When Mansoor came for Hajj, he visited Madina as well and treated the Imam with great respect.

  3. Haroon ar-Rasheed

    Haroon ar-Rasheed was a patron of the Ulama. He had great regard for Imam Malik. He personally, with his two sons, journeyed to Madina to listen to the Muatta. He invited the Imam to come to his camp in order to give lessons but the Imam refused. So Haroon brought his sons to the Imam.

  4. His death

    Imam Malik was 86 years and had become quite weak, but he still continued to give lesson and issue fatwas.

    It was Sunday when he became ill and for the next 22 odd days it got worse. He passed away on the 11 th Rabi-ul-Akhir, 179 AH

    He had taught and issued fatwas for 62 years.

IMAM MAALIK IBN ANAS (ra) - ORIGIN OF MALIKI FIQAH

The Fuqaha-e-Saba 'of Madina are:

  1. Saeed ibn Musayyib, Died 94 AH
  2. Ubaidullah ibn Uttba ibn Mas'ud, Died 98 AH
  3. Urwa, Died 94 AH
  4. Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, Died 108 AH
  5. Abu Bakr bin Abdur-Rahman bin Haris ibn Hisham, Died 94 AH
  6. Sulaiman ibn Yasaar, Died 109 AH
  7. Kharija Zaid, Died 109 AH

These 7 were the centre of Ilm-e-Fiqah and Hadith in Madina.

Their unanimous ruling was the basis of any verdict in the court of Madina in matters of Fiqah.

The basis of Imam Malik's Fiqah and Fatwa originates from this Fiqah of Madina.

Allama ibn Qayyim (ra) states that the promotion of Deen, Fiqah, and Ilm in the Ummah is due to the students of Ibn Mas'ud, Zaid bin Thabit, Ibn Umar and Ibn Abbas (ra).

Ibn Mas'ud stayed in Madina but was later ordered to reside in Kufa.

Therefore the above 7 were instrumental in the promotion of Ilm in Madina.

And it is from these persons that the Shaikhs of Imam Malik benefitted, in particular Hazrat Rabi'atur Raai who is the most important Shaikh of Imam Malik (ra).

Imam Malik based his rulings in his Fatwas from the Fiqah of the above and this eventually became the "Maliki Fiqah.

IMAM SHAFI'EE (ra)

  1. Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Idrees Shafi'ee (ra) was a descendant from the Quraish tribe.

    He is the Only Imam who is related to Rasulullah (saw).

  2. Imam Shafi'ee (RAH) was born in Ghazza, Syria in 150 AH (765 AC)

    He lost his father during infancy and was raised by his mother under very poor circumstances.

  3. He completed Hifz of the Qur'an at the tender age of 7 years, and at the age of 13 memorized the Kitabul-Muatta of Imam Malik (ra).

  4. He spent some time among the Beduins outside Makka, to acquire a good knowledge of the Arabic language.

  5. At the age of 20, (170 AH / 785 AC) he went to Madina and became a student of Imam Malik (ra) who was greatly impressed with the young student who had memorized the Muatta.

  6. He stayed with Imam Malik for some time; thereafter he returned to Makka.

  7. He also came into contact with other learned men (81 Shaikhs) from all of whom he acquired the knowledge of the Qur'an, Hadith and Sunnah.

  8. In 184 AH / 799 AC, Imam Shafi'ee was arrested and taken to Baghdad to appear before Haroon Ar-Rasheed on "trumped up" charges of treason. It was due to the recommendation of Imam Muhammad (the state Qazi and student of Imam Abu Hanifa) that Imam Shafi'ee was discharged. He was then 34 years old.

  9. Imam Shafi'ee remained in Baghdad as a student of Imam Muhammad for over three years to add further to his knowledge of Islamic Law.

  10. He returned to Makka where he stayed for 9 years delivering lectures on Islamic Law. It was during this period that Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal came into contact with Imam Shafi'ee.

  11. In 199 AH, he went to Egypt where he was received with much honour and respect. He remained here until his death.

  12. Imam Shafi'ee was the author of over 100 books, the most important of which is the Kitab-ul-Umm. It contains the rulings of the Imam on all subjects of Islamic Law.

  13. He left behind a large number of dedicated students in Makka, Baghdad and Egypt.

  14. The Shafi'ee School of Thought emerged from these students who propagated the views and rulings of the Imam through their writings and preachings.

  15. Imam Shafi'ee (ra) never committed a major sin nor spoke a lie, nor did he swallow an unlawful morsel of food in his entire life.

    He never at any time performed Jumma without Ghusal.

  16. He was an extremely generous personality who on numerous occasions gave away all he possessed to the poor and needy.

  17. He died in Cairo, Egypt, on Friday evening after Maghrib, 29th Rajab, 204 AH (20th Jan, 820 AC) after a short illness, at the age of 53-54 years. {MARK}

IMAM SHAFI'EE (ra) - ADDITIONAL FACTS

  1. Abu Abdulla Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Al-Abbas bin Usman bin Shafi '.

  2. His ancestry joins the Prophet at Abd Manaaf.

  3. His title is 'Naasirun Sunnah'. He was honoured as Al-Imaamul Mujaddid in that he is the Mujaddid of the 2nd century.

  4. His birth place is Ghazza / Asqalaan - a place two stages from Jeruselam. He was born in Rajab 150 AH

  5. He was two years old when his parents moved to Makka and made it their home.

  6. His mother was a Yemeni of the famous Bani Azd tribe.

  7. His ancestor - Shafi'- was the flag bearer of the Banu Hashim in Badr.

    He was taken prisoner and released after ransom. Thereafter he embraced Islam.

    Another report states that he met the Prophet (saw) as a youngster and became a Muslim.

    However his father - Saa'ib - was the flag bearer .....

  8. Imam Shafi'ee completed Hifz at 7 and memorised Muatta at 10 years.

  9. At 15 with the permission of his SHAIKH - Muslim bin Khalid Zanji (the Mufti of Makka) - he started issuing fatwas.

  10. Earlier he spent his time in Arabic literature and poetry.

    One day at Mina, he heard a voice behind saying: "Aliaka bil Fiqah" - (GRASP THE FIQAH).

  11. Muslim bin Khalid who had noticed his remarkable intelligence, etc., advised him to study Fiqah.

    He spent three years with the Shaikh, until the age of 13.

  12. Later he went to Madina to study under Imam Malik.

    Besides Imam Malik, he studied Hadith under 81 Shaikhs.

    In Makka his tutor was Sufyan bin Ainiyyah.

    Imam Shafi'ee said about these two: "Had it not been for Imam Malik and Sufyan, then Ilm Would not have remained in Hidjaz."

  13. He spent 8 months with Imam Malik, then returned to Makka.

  14. He came into contact in 184 AH with Imam Muhammad - state Qazi - at Baghdad and stayed with him for over 3 years. Taking into account future visits to the Imam, he spent 10 years with Imam Muhammad.

    Comments: "I never came across a greater Alim of Kitabullah than Imam Muhammad (ra).

  15. Imam Muhammad made this comment:

    [a] The door of Fiqah was shut to the people, Allah opened it because of Shafi'ee.

    [b] Imam Shafi'ee is the Mujaddid of Deen.

  16. Imam Malik made this comment:

    No Scholar more brilliant than Muhammad ibn Idris Shafi'ee ever came to me as a pupil.

  17. Fiqah Shafi'ee

    The Imam had mastered both Maliki and Hanafi Fiqah. Keeping both before him, he formulated the basis of the Shafi'ee Fiqah.

    His pupils compiled his works, Fatwas, teachings, etc., and promoted the Shafi'ee School of Fiqah.

IMAM AHMAD IBN MUHAMMAD HAMBAL (ra)

  1. Abu Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hambal Shaibani Al-Maruzi was of pure Arab descent whose ancestery joins Hazrat Ebrahim (as).

  2. He was born in Baghdad in the month of Rabi-ul-Awwal, 164 AH He lost his father when he was only three years old.

  3. Baghdad being the Capital of the Muslim State was an important centre of learning during the Banu Abbas Era.

  4. Imam Ahmad Hambal (ra) completed Hifz of the Qur'an at an early age.

  5. In 180 AH, when he was 16 years old, he began to persue the knowledge of Ahadith under the Imam Abu Yusuf (the most important pupil of Imam Abu Hanifa (ra)).

  6. He stayed with him for 3 years, during which time he recorded so much information, that the volumes filled 3 book shelves.

  7. Later he also attended the classes of Imam Muhammad (another prominent pupil of Imam Abu Hanifa (ra)).

  8. After accumlating knowledge from numerous scholars in Baghdad, he journeyed to Kufa, Basra, Makka, Madina, Yemen, Syria, Jazira in order to increase his knowledge of Ahadith.

  9. After meeting with over a hundred Shaikhs, he is reputed to have made a collection of over a million Ahadith.

  10. It was in 187 AH that he met Imam Shafi'ee (ra) in Makka for the first time. Later when Imam Shafi'ee came to Baghdad, Imam Hambal also joined him during the Imam's residence here and mastered from him Fiqah.

  11. Imam Shafi'ee (ra) too on the other hand relied very much on the knowledge of Ahadith and Sunnah which Imam Ahmad Hambal (ra) possessed.

  12. It was in 204 AH, only after he had reached the age of 40, that Imam Ahmad Hambal (ra) started conducting lessons and delivering lectures.

  13. Being a prominent figure, his lectures attracted a huge gathering of at least 5,000 students among whom nearly 500 took down notes daily.

  14. Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, and Imam Tirmizi (ra) were also amongst his noteworthy students.

  15. The Mu'tazila controversy regarding the "immortality and creation of the Qur'an" was the cause of much trial in the life of the Imam, who suffered much over a period of nearly 15 years.

  16. The Banu Abbas rulers - Al-Ma'moon and Al-Mu'tasim who were influenced by the Mu'tazila - tried to force the Ulama to accept the Mu'tazila doctrine.

  17. Being a devotee of the Sunnah, and an opposer of Bid'at it fell upon the shoulders of Imam Hambal (ra) to oppose this doctrine vigorously.

  18. Al-Mu'tasim even ordered the flogging and imprisonment of the Imam for several months.

    Imam Hambal succumbed to the sufferings rather than deviate from the beliefs and practices of the Sunnah.

  19. The sufferings of Imam Hambal ended when Al-Mutawakkil took over as ruler, restored the traditional teachings of Islam and accorded the Imam the honour befitting the great scholar.

  20. Among his several works is the Encyclopaedia of Ahadith called Masnad, compiled by his son Abdulla from his lectures, and amplified by references to over 28,000 Ahadith.

  21. His other important works include a collection of his fatwas (Islamic rulings on religious matters) - covering over 20 volumes.

    These fatwas form the basis of the Hambali School of Thought.

  22. The Hambalis represent the smallest group in the four Sunni Schools of Fiqah.

  23. Imam Hambal (ra) died after a short illness in Baghdad, on Friday evening, 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal, 241 AH (855 AC) at the age of 77 years.

  24. His Janaza Salaat was attended by nearly 1,000,000 people who came to pay their respects to this great scholar of Islam. {MARK}

http://www.beautifulislam.net/biographies/four_imams.htm

Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi:

Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (239-321) can be said to represent the creed of both Ash`aris and Maturidis, especially the latter, as he was also following the Hanafi madhhab.

Have Chosen Therefore We To Include The Entire Translated Text Of Statement Of His Islamic Doctrine Commonly Known As The `Aqida Tahawiyya.

This text, representative of the viewpoint of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, has long been the most widely acclaimed, and indeed indispensable, reference work on Muslim beliefs, of which the text below is a complete English translation. 

Abu Ja`far Ahmad's Profile Imam Muhammad Ibn al-Azdi, Known As Imam Tahawi After His Birthplace In Egypt, Is Among

The Most Outstanding Authorities Of The Islamic world On Hadith And Jurisprudence (Fiqh). He lived at a time when both the direct

and indirect disciples of the Four Imams of law were teaching and practicing. This period was the greatest age of Hadith and fiqh studies,

and Imam Tahawi studied with all the living authorities of the day. Al-Badr al-`Ayni said that when Ahmad died, Tahawi was 12; when Bukhari died,

he was 27; when Muslim died, he was 32; when Ibn Majah died, he was 44; when Abu Dawud died, he was 46; when Tirmidhi died, he was fifty; when Nisa'i died,

he was 74. Kawthari relates this and adds the consensus of scholars that Tahawi allied in himself completion in the two knowledges of hadith and fiqh,

a consensus that included, among others, al-`Ayni and al-Dhahabi , with Ibn Taymiyya singling himself out in his opinion that Tahawi was not

very knowledgeable in hadith. Flatly Contradicted Is This By Ibn Kathir Who Says In His Notice On Tahawi In al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya:

"He Is One Of The Trustworthy Narrators Of Established Reliability, And One Of The Massive Memorizers Of Hadith." Kawthari calls Ibn Taymiyya's verdict

"another one of his random speculations" and states: "No-one disregards Tahawi's knowledge of the defective hadith except someone whose

own defects have no remedy, and may Allah protect us from such."  

Tahawi began his studies with his maternal uncle Isma`il ibn Yahya al-Muzani, a leading disciple of Imam Shafi`i. However, Tahawi felt instinctively

drawn to the corpus of Imam Abu Hanifa's works. Indeed, he had seen his uncle and teacher turning to the works of Hanafi scholars to resolve thorny

issues of fiqh, drawing heavily on the writings of Abu Hanifa's two leading companions, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani and Abu Yusuf, who had codified

Hanafi fiqh. This led him to devote his whole attention to studying the Hanafi works and he eventually joined the Hanafi school. He now stands out not only

as a prominent follower of that Hanafi school but, in view of his vast erudition and remarkable powers of assimilation, as one of its leading scholars. Monumental

Scholarly Works His, Such As Sharh al-athar Ma`ani And Mushkil al-athar, Are Encyclopedic In Scope And Have Long Been Regarded As Indispensable Training

For Students Of Fiqh. He Was In Fact A ​​Mujtahid Across The Board And Was Thoroughly Familiar With The Fiqh Of All Four Schools, As Stated

By Ibn `Abd al-Barr And Related By Kawthari, And As Shown By Tahawi's Own workTel On Comparative Law Entitled Ikhtilaf al-Fuqaha '.    

's Tahawi "Doctrine" (al-`Aqida), Though Small In Size, Is A Basic Text For All Times, What A Listing Muslim Must Know And Believe And Inwardly

Comprehend. There is consensus among the Companions, the Successors and all the leading Islamic authorities such as the four Imams and their authoritative

followers on the doctrines enumerated in this work, which are entirely derived from the undisputed primary sources of Religion,

the Holy Qur'an and the confirmed Hadith. Being a text on Islamic doctrine, this work sums up the arguments set forth in those two sources to define sound belief, and likewise, the arguments advanced in refuting the views of sects that have deviated from the Sunna. 

As regards the sects mentioned in this work, familiarity with Islamic history up to the time of Imam Tahawi would be quite helpful.

More or less veiled references to sects such as the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Karramiyya, the Qadariyya, and the Jabariyya are found in the work.

It also contains allusions to other views considered unorthodox and deviant from the way of Ahl al-Sunna. There is an explicit reference in

the work to the controversy on the creation of the Qu'ran in the times of al-Ma'mun and others.

While The Permanent Relevance Of The Statements Of Belief In The `Aqida Are Obvious, The Historical Weight And Point Of Certain Of These Statements

Can Be Properly Appreciated Only If The workTel Is Used As A Text For Study Under The Guidance Of Some Learned Person Able To elucidate

its arguments fully, with reference to the intellectual and historical background of the sects refuted in the work. Since the present book is intended exactly

as one such aid towards understanding the details of Islamic belief with clarity, it is hoped that the quotation of the entire text of Tahawi's

"Doctrine," which we consider as the doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna wa al -Jama`a, will be of benefit to the reader. And may Allah grant us a true understanding

of faith and count us among those described by the Prophet as the Saved Group.  

Aqeedah Tahawiyyah

In the name of Allah the Merciful

In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate Praise be to Allah, Lord of all the worlds.This is narrated by Imam Abu Jaafar Eltahawy in a statement

Sunnis believe Community on the doctrine of the scholars of the religion of Abu Hanifa Nu'man bin Thabit Kufi, and Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ibrahim Al-Ansari, and Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaibani God bless them all, and what they think of the origins of religion and condemn him Lord of the Worlds.     

The great scholar Hujjat al-lslam Abu Ja'far al-Warraq al-Tahawi al-Misri, may Allah have mercy on him, said: This is a presentation of the beliefs of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, according to the school of the jurists of this religion, Abu Hanifa al-Nu`man ibn Thabit al-Kufi, Abu Yusuf Ya`qub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari and Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani, may Allah be pleased with them all, and what they believe regarding the fundamentals of the religion and their faith in the Lord of the worlds.

We say in the unification of believing God, the grace

We say about Allah's unity, believing by Allah's help that:

The one God is not a partner,

1. Allah is One, without any partners.

Nothing like him,

2. There is nothing like Him.

Nothing incapable,

3. There is nothing that can overwhelm Him.

No other god,

4. There is no god other than Him.

Old without beginning, without a permanent end,

5. He is the Eternal without a beginning and enduring without end.

Immortal, Lebed,

6. He will never perish or come to an end.

Not only be what he wants,

7. Nothing happens except what He wills.

Not inform him of illusions, nor comprehended wrote a chapter,

8. No imagination can conceive of Him and no understanding can comprehend Him.

Does not resemble creatures

9. He is different from any created being.

Neighborhood does not die, Qayyum not sleep,

10. He is living and never dies and is eternally active and never sleeps.

Creator without need, Raziq them without subsistence,

11. He creates without His being in need to do so and provides for His creation without any effort.

Without fear of deadly, emitter without discomfort.

12. He causes death with no fear and restores to life without difficulty.

His characteristics are still old before his creation. Not increased of being something that was not before them of his qualities, and also had qualities everlastingly also still them eternally.  

13. He has always existed together with His attributes since before creation. Bringing creation into existence did not add anything to His attributes that was not already there. As He was, together with His attributes, in pre-eternity, so He will remain throughout endless time.

Not since the creation of creation benefited name of the Creator, nor Bahaddath wild benefited name Bari 

14. It was not only after the act of creation that He could be described as "the Creator" nor was it only by the act of origination that He could he described as "the Originator."

Deism has no meaning Mrpop, meaning Alkhagayh nor creature, 

15. He was always the Lord even when there was nothing to be Lord of, and always the Creator even when there was no creation.

As it Mohi dead after Ohaahm, deserved this name before their neighborhoods, as well as earned the name of the Creator before they constructed, 

16. In the same way that He is the "Bringer to life of the dead," after He has brought them to life a first time, and deserves this name before bringing them to life, so too He deserves the name of "Creator" before we have created them.

So that, all things, and everything to the poor, and all it is going, does not need a thing 

Is not nothing like Him, He is the All-Seeing

17. This is because He has the power to do everything, everything is dependent on Him, everything is easy for Him, and He does not need anything. "There is nothing like Him and He is the Hearer, the Seer." (al-Shura 42:11)

Created the universe with his knowledge,

18. He created creation with His knowledge.

He estimated them greater amounts,

19. He appointed destinies for those He created.

And hit them deadlines,

20. He allotted to them fixed life spans.

Did not hide anything from him by their actions that created them, and aware of what they are doing before you create them, 

21. Nothing about them was hidden from Him before He created them, and He knew everything that they would do before He created them.

And he ordered them to obey him and forbade them from sin,

22. He ordered them to obey Him and forbade them to disobey Him.

Everything is done in his ability and his will. And implement his will, not the will of the slaves, but wills them, willing them what was and did not want not.  

23. Everything happens according to His degree and will, and His will is accomplished. The only will that people have is what He wills for them. What He wills for them occurs and what He does not will, does not occur.

Guides whom He wills and Iasm and Ievi of wills as well, and go astray from wills and let down and just afflict 

24. He gives guidance to whomever He wills, and protects them, and keeps them safe from harm, out of His generosity; and He leads astray whomever He wills, and abases them, and afflicts them, out of His justice.

کlھm of unstable and in Mhیitھ between Vdilھ and Adlھ

25. All of them are subject to His will either through His generosity or His justice.

It is transcendent for antibodies and peer 

26. He is Exalted beyond having opposites or equals.

No individuals to spend, and pursuer of his rule, and most of his command,

27. No one can ward off His decree or delay His command or overpower His affairs.

Safe to do it all, and we realized that both of his own.

28. We believe in all of this and are certain that everything comes from Him.

And that Muhammad is Allah bless him and his servant Mustafa, and Nabih Mujtaba, and His Messenger Murtada, 

29. And we are certain that Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is His chosen Servant and elect Prophet and His Messenger with whom He is well pleased,

Seal of the Prophets and the Imam of the pious, and of the messengers, and Habib Allah, 

30. And that he is the Seal of the Prophets and the Imam of the godfearing and the most honored of all the messengers and the Beloved of the Lord of all the worlds.

Every call prophecy after prophecy veggies and Hui;

31. Every claim to Prophet-hood after Him is falsehood and deceit.

It envoy to General jinn and all mankind, envoy to the right and Huda 

32. He is the one who has been sent to all the jinn and all mankind with truth and guidance and with light and illumination.

And that the Koran the word of God, began without a word how, and revealed to the Prophet and alive, and his sincerity on that believers really, and they were convinced that the word of God the truth. Not a creature wild Kkalam, including claims that it has heard the words of human beings has disbelieved, and the protection of God Almighty and saliva, or several and torment, where he said:     

Sosalih Hell

When God Hell shimmer who said:

This is nothing but words of humans

We learned that the words of the creator of human beings, and human beings is like saying,

33. The Qur'an is the word of Allah. It came from Him as speech without it being possible to say how. He sent it down on His Messenger as revelation. The believers accept it, as absolute truth. They are certain that it is, in truth, the word of Allah. It is not created as is the speech of human beings, and anyone who hears it and claims that it is human speech has become an unbeliever. Allah warns him and censures him and threatens him with Fire when He says, Exalted is He: "I will burn him in the Fire." (al-Muddaththir 74:26) When Allah threatens with the Fire those who say "This is just human speech" (74:25) we know for certain that it is the speech of the Creator of mankind and that it is totally unlike the speech of mankind.

And description of God in the sense of the meanings of human beings has disbelieved, it saw this take it, and like the words of the infidels Anzjr, and learned that God qualities not like humans.  

34. Anyone who describes Allah as being in any way the same as a human being has become an unbeliever. All those who grasp this will take heed and refrain from saying things such as the unbelievers say, and they will know that He, in His attributes, is not like human beings.

And the right vision for the people of paradise is not without briefing how, as he spoke Book of our Lord when he said: 

Faces green bay that day  - to Lord headmistress 

And interpreted what he wanted God and his knowledge, and all that came in from the right to talk about the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his companions, God bless them all he said, and the meaning and interpretation of what he wanted, do not go into the Mtoolin our views nor illusion Bohoaina, it What him in his religion, but of peace to God and His Messenger, may Allah bless him; Lord knew what was suspected to be his world,      

35. The Seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is true, without their vision being all-encompassing and without the manner of their vision being known. As the Book of our Lord has expressed it: "Faces on that Day radiant, looking at their Lord." (al-Qiyama 75: 22-3) The explanation of this is as Allah knows and wills. Everything that has come down to us about this from the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in authentic traditions, is as he said and means what he intended. We do not delve into that, trying to interpret it according to our own opinions or letting our imaginations have free rein.

No one is safe in his religion unless he surrenders himself completely to Allah, the Exalted and Glorified and to His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and leaves the knowledge of things that are ambiguous to the one who knows them.

Nor set foot Islam only on the delivery and surrender afternoon, it is Ram aware of the ban him, did not convince the delivery understood, blocked Mramh sincere unification, and the net knowledge, and true faith, Vizbzb between disbelief and belief, and disbelief, and acknowledgment and denial, affected by waswaas wandering, grew dim Shaka, not a believer certified, nor Jahadda belying.     

36. A man's Islam is not secure unless it is based on submission and surrender. Anyone who desires to know things which it is beyond his capacity to know, and whose intellect is not content with surrender, will find that his desire veils him from a pure understanding of Allah's true unity, clear knowledge and correct belief, and that he veers between disbelief and belief, confirmation and denial and acceptance and rejection. He will he subject to whisperings and find himself confused and full of doubt, being neither an accepting believer nor a denying rejector.

Nor true faith in the vision of the people of Dar es Salaam for those who considered them the illusion, or Toolha understanding, if the interpretation of the vision and interpretation of the meaning of each is added to the Godhead leave the interpretation and unnecessary delivery, is in debt senders and canons of the Prophets. It has not longed exile and metaphor Zell, was hurt transcendence; the Lord Almighty described the characteristics of oneness, Mnaot adjectives individuality, not a sense of a wild,       

37. Belief of a man in the seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is not correct if he imagines what it is like or interprets it according to his own understanding, since the interpretation of this seeing or indeed, the meaning of any of the subtle phenomena which are in the realm of Lordship, is by avoiding its interpretation and strictly adhering to the submission.

This is the religion of Muslims. Anyone who does not guard himself against negating the attributes of Allah, or likening Allah to something else, has gone astray and has failed to understand Allah's glory, because our Lord, the Glorified and the Exalted, can only possibly be described in terms of oneness and absolute singularity and no creation is in any way like Him.

God from the border and ends, and Staff and tools, not its contents creators like all the six parties. 

38. He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all created things are.

Maraj and right. The family of the Prophet, peace be upon him and he stopped his person in the waking up to the sky, then to where God Almighty from on high, and God honored him as he wishes,  

Abdo, signaling what inspired (what کzb Alfoad what Ray) quarterly Allھ Alیھ him in the first and Alakharۃ 

39. Al-Mi`raj (The Ascent Through The Heavens) Is True. The Prophet, may Allah Bless Him And Grant Him Peace, Was Taken By Night And Ascended In His Bodily Form, While Awake, Through The Heavens, To Whatever Heights Allah Willed For Him. Allah Ennobled Him In The Way That He Ennobled Him And Revealed to him what He revealed to him, "and his heart was not mistaken about what it saw" (al-Najm 53:11). Allah blessed him and granted him peace in this world and the next.   

And pelvis which God Geatta honored him for his nation right 

40. Al-Hawd, The Pool Which Has Granted Allah The Prophet As An Honour To Quench The Thirst Of His Community On The Day Of Judgement, Is True. 

The intercession by God to them as Roy treasure 'in the news

41. Al-Shafa`a, The Intercession Which Is Stored Up For Muslims, Is True, As Related In The Hadiths. 

The Charter, which God took him from Adam peace be upon him and his descendants the right. 

42. The covenant which Allah made with Adam and his offspring is true.

God has still not been informed regarding the number of those who enter paradise, and enters fire one sentence, not increased the number does not detract from it;  

43. Allah knew, before the existence of time, the exact number of those who would enter the Garden and the exact number of those who would enter the Fire. This number will neither be increased nor decreased.

As well as their actions, while they are aware of them they're doing. Every facilitator for the creation to him.. And business Bakhawatیm. And Saeed Saad Bakdhaouallھ, mobster from Naughty Bakdhaouallھ  

44. The same applies to all actions done by people, which are done exactly as Allah knew they would be done. Everyone is eased towards what he was created for and it is the action with which a man's life is sealed which dictates his fate. Those who are fortunate are fortunate by the decree of Allah, and those who are wretched are wretched by the decree of Allah.

Destiny and the origin of the mystery of God in His creation, had not seen the king so close, not a prophet. The depth and look at it as a pretext abandonment, deprivation and blessings, and the degree of tyranny. Vigilance each of caution in view or ideology or the whispers; the God rolled aware much about Onamh, and forbade them from Mramh, as he said in his book:     

Do not ask what do they ask

. I asked: Why did he do? He responded the rule book of God, and answer the rule book of God was one of the disbelievers .  

45. The exact nature of the decree is Allah's secret in His creation, and no angel near the Throne, nor Prophet sent with a message, has been given knowledge of it. Delving into it and reflecting too much about it only leads to destruction and loss, and results in rebelliousness. So be extremely careful about thinking and reflecting on this matter or letting doubts about it assail you, because Allah has kept knowledge of the decree away from human beings, and forbidden them to enquire about it, saying in His Book, "He is not asked about what He does, but they are asked "(al-Anbiya '21: 23).

Therefore, anyone who asks: "Why did Allah do that?" has gone against a judgement of the Book, and anyone who goes against a judgement of the Book is an unbeliever.

This phrase what he needs from it Munawar heart of the friends of Allah the Almighty, a degree of established in science; because science Elman: science in the creation exists, and science in the creation missing; denial of science existing Kafr, and claim the flag missing Kafr. Not true faith but to accept science located, and asked to leave the missing flag.  
  
 

46. ​​This in sum is what those of Allah's Friends with enlightened hearts need to know and constitutes the degree of those firmly endowed with knowledge. For there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge which is accessible to created beings, and knowledge which is not accessible to created beings. Denying the knowledge which is accessible is disbelief, and claiming the knowledge which is inaccessible is disbelief. Belief can only be firm when accessible knowledge is accepted and the inaccessible is not sought after.

And we believe the board, pen, all that which may number. If Creation met all of them on something written by God in him that the object is to make him the object did not appreciate it. Jeff Pen object to what is the Day of Resurrection. What was wrong slave did not fall ill, and the injury did not missed him.    

We Believe In 47. al-Lawh (The Tablet) And al-Qalam (The Pen) And Everything In Written On The Former. Even if all created beings were to gather together to make something fail to exist, whose existence Allah had written on the Tablet, they would not be able to do so. And if all created beings were to gather together to make something exist which Allah had not written on it, they would not be able to do so. The Pen has dried having written down all that will be in existence until the Day of Judgement.Whatever a person has missed he would have never got, and whatever he gets he would have never missed.    

And the slave to know that God has already taught him everything object of his creation, and to the extent that his will in recognition arbitrator concluded, is not it contradicted nor pursuer, nor remover or changer, or adapter, and a plus or minus of his creation in Smoath and land. And that of contract faith and knowledge assets, and recognition of the unification of God and His Lordship; as he says in his book Aziz:     

And created everything in recognition ability

He says:

The deal is God manageable

. Woe to those who became his God _khasama in the pot, and bring to consider the moribund heart, I have sought Boehme in pure unseen secretly hermetically, and returned including Lavaka sinful