THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION: A UNIQUE DECEPTION IN THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD
This is the home page for Piltdown man, a paleontological "man who never was". In April of 1996 there was an extended discussion in the talk.origins news group about the Piltdown man hoax. During the discussion I checked the web and discovered that Piltdown man did not have a home page. I resolved to eliminate this deficiency in the scholarly resources of the world wide web; here, for your delectation, is Piltdown man's home page. Corrections and suggestions for improvement are welcome.
WHAT IS A PARADIGM?
A scientific paradigm, in the most basic sense of the word, is a framework containing all of the commonly accepted views about a subject, a structure of what direction research should take and how it should be performed.
Read more: http://www.experiment-resources.com/what-is-a-paradigm.html#ixzz1WM7vwlmT
WHAT IS A PARADIGM’S PURPOSE?
The philosopher, Thomas Kuhn was the first to use the term for science, suggesting that scientific research does not progress towards truths, but is subject to dogma and clinging to old theories. The word, like many scientific terms, comes from Greek, and means example.
He came up with four basic ways in which a paradigm indirectly influences the scientific process. A paradigm dictates:
- What is studied and researched.
- The type of questions that are asked.
- The exact structure and nature of the questions.
- How the results of any research are interpreted.
Kuhn believed that science had periods of patiently gathering data, in a paradigm, and then revolution occurred as the paradigm matured.
A paradigm can absorb some errors but they eventually become insurmountable, like Ptolemy’s epicycles, and result in a paradigm shift.
The new paradigm is not necessarily any better than the old, just different. For example, most psychologists weep at the mention of the Freudian paradigm.
WHAT IS A PARADIGM SHIFT?
Normal science is the step-by-step scientific process, which builds patiently upon previous research.
Read more: http://www.experiment-resources.com/what-is-a-paradigm.html#ixzz1WM8GG6TQ
"We should try to make students understand . . . why a scientist can never be sure that he or she has the final answer to anything." (Our highlights.) Mr. Alberts clearly has a deep understanding of the limits of the science method.
There is strong logic to what Mr. Alberts says even for basic science. It is even more true (much more true) of medical science. A basic science experiment almost always has few variables and even in that situation there is always some inherent doubt in the understanding of the science apparent finding. In medical the variables are vast compared to what is trying to be understood. The doubts about the fundamental meaning of medical science experiments can be very large and even misleading if not very carefully evaluated.
Since Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen, 965–1039), one of the key figures in the development of scientific method, the emphasis has been on seeking truth:
Truth is sought for its own sake. And those who are engaged upon the quest for anything for its own sake are not interested in other things. Finding the truth is difficult, and the road to it is rough.